Monthly Archives: December 2018

2018 Alumni Divrei Torah Snapshots

We’re excited to share the 2018 Alumni Divrei Torah Snapshots, which feature highlights from CMTL’s weekly alumni Divrei Torah written in 2018.

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2018 CMTL Snapshots

See here for a collection of highlights from Rabbi Klapper’s weekly Divrei Torah from 2018!

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2018 CMTL Reader

The Center for Modern Torah Leadership is excited to share the 2018 CMTL Reader, a collection of the top works written by Rabbi Klapper and/or published by the CMTL in 2018. We hope you enjoy!

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Understanding the Work and Words of Shemot

by Rabbi Aryeh Klapper

Shemot 1:13-14:

ויעבדו מצרים את בני ישראל

:בפרך

וימררו את חייהם

בעבדה קשה

בחמר ובלבנים

ובכל עבדה בשדה

את כל עבדתם

:אשר עבדו בהם בפרך

Mitzrayim worked (ABD) the Children of Israel

with PRKH

They embittered their lives

with ABD

with mortar and with bricks

and with all ABD in the field

eit all their ABD

that they ABD with them

with PRKH

These verses tell of our enslavement in Mitzrayim at great and repetitive length, but with almost complete opacity. There are five iterations of the verb ABD, or work, which in its transitive form likely means “enslaved”.   We also have

  1.  two objects – “mortar” and “brick”;
  2. one location – “the field”;
  3. two adjectives – perekh (twice, at the beginning and end) and kasheh – (in the middle);
  4. and one verb phrase – “they embittered their lives.”

All this gives us essential no concrete detail whatsoever.

I suggest that both the length and opacity are deliberate, and their combined purpose is to stimulate and encourage our imaginations. The historical facts of what the mitzrim made us do would inevitably generate different reactions indifferent times and cultures.  By using evaluative language rather than specific descriptions, the Torah simulates us to imagine their cruelty in terms appropriate for our time. Allowing each generation to fill in different details enables the meaning to remain constant.

Many schools of interpretation argue that the authors of the Eighth Amendment to Constitution used the same technique in a legal context when they banned “cruel and unusual punishment.” I have argued along the same lines that it is appropriate to have standard depictions of Mosheh Rabbeinu conform to our current religious images even when this is purely anachronistic.

Seeing Mosheh in Bedouin garb distances us; seeing him in a kippah srugah helps us understand who he was. And if children intuitively draw him wearing a black hat instead of a kippah, we should not criticize them for their ahistoricalism, but rather seek to understand why their image of spiritual greatness is chareidi rather than Modern Orthodox, and make whatever changes – pedagogic or substantive – are needed to change that. For example, we should ask why they fail to immediately connect Mosheh Rabbeinu with Zionism.

The imaginative freedom we are given here is serious business, but seriousness and playfulness are not antonyms, and pedestrian interpretations would miss the point. For example: The “ABD=work in the fields” may refer to plowing, planting, harvesting, and the rest of the first 11 prohibited categories of melakhah on Shabbat, and the other four ABDs may collectively include the other 28 categories of melakhah. We could produce beautiful picture books showing mitzri overseers forcing downtrodden Israelites to write or erase two letters.  But they would not advance our understanding without an explanation of why the Shabbat categories are relevant.

Here the medieval commentator R. Chaim Paltiel reminds us that Shabbat is a reminder of the Exodus, and is (partially) intended to ensure that work does not become totalitarian.  R. Paltiel’s approach locates the cruelty of the Mitzriyim not in the nature of the work they imposed, but in its comprehensiveness.  There was no category of ordinary labor that was not imposed on the Jews.

Midrash Aggadah gets more in what seems to me the spirit of this passage. The Egyptians ordered the Jews to bring bears and lions and tigers to them. The “fields” were for hunting rather than agriculture Again, the details of the tigers and bears are arbitrary; the point is that the tasks were dangerous, and perhaps also that they have no constructive purpose.  A bonus of this interpretation is that it may explain why the Plague of Arov was poetic justice.

Why the poetic assertion that “they embittered their lives”?  Rabbeinu BeChayay among others suggest that the plural is intended to suggest that G-d’s life as well was embittered.  Kabbalists follow the Zohar in suggesting that true slavery can only take place in the heart, when one sins.  (I suspect that there is an implicit pun – vayimareru/embittered turned into vayamru/rebelled).

The Zohar begins with an assumption, picked up by Seforno, that slavery must be deserved to be effective.  There are two ways it can be deserved – for Seforno, it is retribution for sin, but for the midrashim, it was a natural and just consequence of their weaknesses.

Talmud Sotah 11b records Rabbi Elazar’s position that the first appearance of parekh, rather than meaning “that breaks into pieces” as it ordinarily does, is a contraction of peh rakh, “soft mouth.” The Egyptian slavery began via persuasion/seduction rather than via force. Rashi suggests that the Jews were initially offered high salaries. Some midrashim describe Par’oh himself picking up tools for at least the first day (likely this reads vayaavidu mitzrayim et benei Yisroel as vayaavdu, and translates as “And the Egyptians worked together with the Children of Israel, with soft words”) and/or that the first project was a Jewish city. All these readings seem aimed at assigning the Jews some degree of responsibility for their own victimization.

But why was it a culpable weakness to believe the initial soft words?  I can think of many explanations, several of which make me uncomfortable.  My mother aleha haShalom was always proud of being a bat Levi, following the midrashic tradition the tribe of Levi did not succumb to the initial blandishments (and so Aharon could leave Egypt to meet Mosheh without opposition).  But why would it have been wrong to work for money, or to build one’s own housing?  And why was it so easy for the Egyptians to transition us to slavery?

I contend that there must be a connection between this passage and the three prohibitions against working a slave with parekh in Vayikra 25. Rabbinic tradition there as well defines parekh not as physically by as mentally “breaking” labor, specifically work that is assigned solely to express the dominance of the employer over the employee. The Egyptian enslavement of the Jews as well – as Pharaoh says explicitly – had a psychopolitical rather than economic purpose. “Let us outsmart them” – which is why it began with sweet words.

On this reading, the message of Sefer Shemot is that G-d’s primary reason for hating the mitzri enslavement of the Jews was not His outrage at the physical outrages that were imposed on them. Maybe there weren’t very many such.  Rather, G-d objects to human beings seeking or having the kind of power over others that would enable them to abuse others with impunity – whether or not they ever use it to abuse.

This temptation to power, like all temptations to power, often stems from justifiable and even altruistic motives. You make bad decisions, so it would be better if I made them for you instead.  It exists in religious leadership as in secular.

In all our programs, the Center for Modern Torah Leadership seeks to advance halakhic leadership that understands the dangers of this temptation.  We try to develop talmidei and talmidot chakhamim who understand the importance of autonomy even or especially in a system that intended seems so centered on heteronomy.  We emphasize that acceptance of G-d’s right to command us is intended to prevent us from being subservient to any other human being.  “’Because the Children of Israel are My avadim’ – and never avadim to other avadim”. And yet we recognize that the development of a community bound by religious law requires everyone to sacrifice some measure of autonomy, both for the sake of creating community and for the sake of enabling Torah to function as law.

Shabbat Shalom.

A previous version of this Dvar Torah was written in 2016

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The Empathy of Moshe

This week’s alumni Dvar Torah is by Rabbi Amir Zinkow

This week, we transition from Sefer Breishit to Sefer Shemot as the master narrative of the Jewish people develops and deepens. Setting the dramatic stage upon which we ascend from slavery to freedom, Moshe escapes from Egypt into the desert following the killing of an Egyptian taskmaster.  After receiving the call to return to Egypt as Hashem’s emissary to bring the children of Israel out of bondage, Moshe and Aharon pay repeated visits to Pharaoh. Noting that Moshe and Aharon go in and out of the presence of Pharaoh freely, Rashi asks and answers an interesting question. How was it that they had so much free time to visit with Pharaoh? Wouldn’t they have been burdened with the demands of slavery alongside their fellow Israelites?

Drawing from Shemot Rabbah (Shemot 5:4) Rashi answers that the Levites were not enslaved like the other tribes. While the rest of Benei Yisrael were forced to toil in the fields or do backbreaking construction work, the members of the tribe of Levi were free to conduct their own business and concern themselves with household responsibilities. Rashi wonders why Pharaoh would leave one tribe of Benei Yisrael free from backbreaking labor while oppressing all of the rest? Given that Pharaoh is haunted by the many fears recorded in the beginning of our Parsha, what sense would there be in allowing a portion of the nation of Israel to exist without the trappings of slavery?

One answer to this question is given by the Gur Aryeh in his supercommentary to Rashi. According to his theory, Pharaoh was aware of the prophecy given to Avraham – that his descendants would be slaves and that God would exact punishment on those who enslaved them. By not enslaving one tribe, Pharaoh hoped to avoid this divine retribution.

Rav Yehonatan Eybeschutz, in his Tiferet Yehonatan to Shemot 6:14, gives a different answer. Rav Eybeschutz explains that Pharaoh’s seers rightly predicted that the savior of Israel would emerge from the Levites. It was inconceivable to Pharaoh’s that someone who had not personally experienced slavery could become a redeemer OF the enslaved. Pharaoh reasoned that if he left the tribe of Levi alone, an Israelite would not step up to redeem Benei Yisrael. By allowing one tribe to remain free, Pharaoh thought he was guaranteeing a lifetime of servitude for all of the tribes.

Viewed from this perspective, it is Pharaoh’s utter lack of empathy that leads him to this conclusion. Pharaoh was so unsympathetic that he could not imagine the possibility of someone who was not suffering the bondage of slavery standing up to lead the people out of Egypt. Why would someone who had not experienced the pain and humiliation of slavery risk everything, including his own life, to free others?

Pharaoh was, of course, incorrect in his thinking. We have three stories in Parshat Shemot to demonstrate the intense empathy that Moshe naturally developed in spite of growing up in the sheltered, privileged palace of the king. In each story–striking down the Egyptian taskmaster, his effort to create peace between two fighting Israelites, and saving Yitro’s daughters from harassment at the well–Moshe reveals his ability to place himself in the reality of the one in pain or the one who is intimidated. His empathy is the foundation of his relentless pursuit of justice. In contrast to Pharaoh, it is precisely Moshe’s ability to empathise with the other that contributes to his greatness as a leader.

Cultivating this important attribute is, Moshe’s legacy teaches, essential for us. I am reminded of this daily as a teacher especially as I ride side by side with my students on their roller-coaster of emotions. I seek to teach students to be mindful of those who might be in pain, are sad or suffering. I also want them to know that the quality empathy allows us to feel others’ success, triumphs and happiness as well. One recent example comes to mind of a student in my class who struggles academically, while at the same time is a very hard worker, diligent and a good listener. When this student, at long last, received an A on a test, empathy helped me to celebrate with him and genuinely share his excitement when I told him his grade.  Empathy enables us to live in whole and authentic relationships with others, fully understanding another’s range of emotions. These empathetic moments build connections and are the building blocks of relationships that lead to holy community. By emulating Moshe and cultivating the ability to understand what another is experiencing, we learn to feel another’s pain and share in each other’s celebrations regardless of our own life experience. That is what Pharaoh could not imagine…that the human heart could be softened by being extraordinarily sensitive to the heart of another.

Rabbi Amir Zinkow (SBM ’18) is a Judaic Studies teacher at The Solomon Schechter School of Westchester Middle School

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Making Marriage Better: Yosef’s Private Life and Jewish Identity

This week’s alumni Dvar Torah is by Zachary Ottenstein

As Yaakov prepares for his impending death,  he asks Yosef to bring his grandsons Menashe and Efraim to be blessed. But when Yosef brings them, Yaakov asks “?מי אלה”, “who are these?” At that point Yaakov had been living in Egypt for seventeen years; why doesn’t he recognize his own grandchildren?

Rashi (48:8) explains that Yaakov felt suddenly unsure of his blessing, and therefore suspected that the children might have poor lineage: “What are these children’s origins such that that they may be unworthy of receiving a blessing from me?”  He suggests (48:9) that Yaakov is alluding to the fact that Yosef’s wife Osnat was not Jewish. Yosef answers his father ”בני הם אשר נתן לי אלוקים בזה”- “these are my children whom G-d has given me bazeh.” Bazeh probably means “in this place,” but it can also mean “with this.” Rabbinic literature often reads zeh as indicating that someone pointed to an object. Rashi accordingly suggests that Yosef showed his father a שטר אירוסין, a certificate of betrothal, and a כתובה, a marriage contract, presumably to prove that Osnat had converted.

At this point, the Jewish people had not yet been commanded to marry in the halakhic manner. Rambam Hilkhot Ishut (1:1) states explicitly that the commandment to marry via a process of kiddushin and nisuin became applicable only after the Torah was given at Har Sinai. How could Yosef would marry under the premise of a law that was yet to exist? How could Yosef be in possession of documents mandated only by a law that was yet to exist?

The Seventh Lubavitcher Rebbe zt”l attempted to answer many of these questions. In the 30th volume of Likutei Sichot, he notes that Rashi in Parshat Toldot adopts the position that the Avot literally observed the entire Torah, even rabbinic enactments. This idea is strange in itself and has been the subject of rabbinic debate for centuries. The late Rebbe nonetheless argues from the verse that recalls the marriage of Yitzchak and Rivka:וַיְבִאֶהָ יִצְחָק הָאֹהֱלָה שָׂרָה אִמּוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת רִבְקָה וַתְּהִי לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה”- “And Yitzchak brought her to the tent of his mother Sarah and he took her to be his wife” – that the Avot did not marry using kiddushin  and nisuin.  He suggests that they observed only the mitzvot that “made sense” for them to keep. Some mitzvot are “intuitive”; an intelligent person might decide on their own that their life or society is improved by creating moral codes without being commanded by G-d to do so. But even our forefathers did not intuit the idea of a two-step marriage process in which at one stage the two parties are legally married, but not living together, and only a year later begin to live together and consummate their marriage, as kiddushin and nisuin were originally practiced.

This interpretation of Rashi’s commentary disqualifies the earlier premise that Yaakov’s uncertainty about blessing Ephraim and Menashe stems from his dissatisfaction over Yosef’s choice of spouse. Yaakov’s apprehension about blessing his grandsons is therefore not a question of who their mother was, but rather: where were they were born, and to which culture they were exposed?  Ephraim and Menashe were born into a land “שטופי זימה,” a self-centered culture based on hedonism and immorality. Yaakov worried that it was simply impossible for them to have resisted the temptations of such a life, therefore making them unfit for a bracha.

Yosef showed Yaakov his shtar eirusin and ketubah in order to demonstrate that it was possible to live a sanctified life amidst such a culture. In Egypt of that time, it was unheard of to write a document testifying to the engaged status of two people, but to Yosef this was a necessary step in separating himself from the Egyptians. It was also for this reason that he wrote some form of a ketubah that made concrete demands on him in order to oppose the willy-nilly and transient nature of Egyptian marriages.  Yosef had assimilated nicely into the Egyptian culture. He had gone from a prisoner who was identified by others as an “איש עברי,” to a viceroy of one of the most powerful kingdoms in the world.  It would have been unfortunate, but natural, had he completely lost any semblance of Jewish identity while serving in this position. On the outside, he was visibly Egyptian with no identifying signs of his different faith and background, but in his private life, where it mattered most, he took extra precautions to sanctify his life and maintain his unique identity.

In the contemporary Jewish world, it is often the public displays of Judaism that make people feel most connected to their faith. In times of increased anti-Semitism, those who were never accustomed to showing their faith outwardly make the decision, often temporarily, to wear a kippah or some other sign of identity full-time. These gestures are nice demonstrations of pride and strong reactions to the hatred of the world. But it is often what Jews do in their private lives that are the greatest causes for pride, and the factors that most distinguish them from negative surrounding cultures. No one knew about Yosef’s desire for a sanctified marriage, not even his father, but the fact that he did so was in many ways a greater expression of “Jewish pride” than any outward appearance-based demonstration can be.

 

Zachary Ottenstein (SBM 2018) is currently a second year student at Yeshivat Eretz Hatzvi in Jerusalem.

 

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Compromising Evils

by Rabbi Aryeh Klapper

The “blessings” that Yaakov gives his sons are written as what we tend to call “poetry.”  Yet they are clearly not all positive, so why are they blessings?  And how does calling something “poetry” help us understand it?

Here is one possibility. “Prose” aims at syntactic clarity, using grammar and punctuation to minimize ambiguity.  “Poetry,” by contrast, may seek to maximize ambiguity, and specifically to take advantage of grammar and punctuation to create ambiguity.

Punctuation is a complicated term with regard to Torah. The implications of the cantillation marks do not correspond to contemporary symbols such as the question mark or exclamation point.  A closer analogy may be the line break in poetry. Poets often use enjambment, the technique in which a line break occurs in the middle of a semantic unit, to create a meaning in the first line which is different than what it means as part of the whole.

In Bereshit 49:9, the start of the “blessing” of Yehudah, the cantillation inserts a break between “miteref” and “beni alita,” so that the translation must be “from teref/ my son you have arisen.”  However, because Yaakov’s reaction to being shown Yosef’s bloody tunic was “tarof taraf Yosef” (37:33), we are tempted to read across the break here and translate “from the teref of my son/you have arisen.”

Rashbam resists this temptation mightily. He insults those who surrender to it as being ignorant of punctuation and cantillation.

והמפרשו במכירת יוסף

לא ידע בשיטה של פסוק ולא בחילוק טעמים כלל:

Anyone who interprets this as a reference to the sale of Yosef
knows nothing of punctuation or the cantillation breaks at all.

This harshness is surprising, as essentially the entire Rabbinic tradition sees in verse a reference to the sale of Yosef (although not exclusively so – it may also refer to Yehudah’s last minute rescue of Tamar, or to the later military triumphs of David, etc.)  Perhaps he was motivated by anti-anti-Semitism.

Regardless, many Rishonim read this verse as a reference to the sale even without ignoring the line break. Acharonim note that they are actually reading the word beni twice, as if the verse said “from the teref of my son – my son, you have arisen.”  The technique of reading a word as if it appears twice shows up regularly in rabbinic reading, but I think it is particularly compelling when the word occurs at a line break in poetry.

There is a second level of objection to seeing a reference to the sale of Yosef in our verse. On what basis can we claim that Yaakov knew about the sale?  Thus Or HaChayyim writes

והדעת נותנת

כי מעולם לא עלה על דעת יעקב שאחים ישלחו יד ביוסף

לחשוד אחד מהם

אלא שדברי רז”ל הם דברי קבלה:

It seems more reasonable
that Yaakov never considered that the brothers would harm Yosef
such that he would suspect one of them of having done so
but the words of the Sages are words of Tradition.

We can accept the Tradition as self-justifying.  Alternatively, we can seek to justify it.  Perhaps Yaakov was speaking semi-consciously, with prophetic insight that he did not himself fully understand.  Or perhaps Yaakov had suspicions, but they were allayed when Yosef turned out to be alive. The verse describes Yehudah, in Yaakov’s mind, as having risen above the suspicion of having harmed Yosef.

Rashi interprets “alita” as “rising above suspicion,” but nonetheless asserts that Yaakov knew full well that Yehudah had advised the sale.

“מטרף” –

ממה שחשדתיך ב”טרף טרף יוסף חיה רעה אכלתהו”,

וזהו יהודה שנמשל לאריה:

“בני עלית” – 

סלקת את עצמך ואמרת “מה בצע וגו'”

Miteref” –
from that which I suspected you of regarding “Surely
tarof taraf Yosef; an evil beast ate him,”
which referred to Yehudah, who is compared to a lion.
beni alita” –
You removed yourself when you said “what
betza (=gain) is there if we kill our brother”.

Yaakov is not praising Yehudah for having repented of the sale; rather, Yaakov is repenting for having suspected Yehudah of worse.

This, in my humble opinion, is a very difficult read, as repentance and change seem to be a key element of the Yehudah story.  Perhaps we can say that Yaakov saw Yehudah’s suggestion of the sale as a first step toward repentance.

Rashi’s reading seems directly opposed to the position of Rabbi Meir on Sanhedrin 6b:

“ובוצע ברך נאץ ה'” –

רבי מאיר אומר:

לא נאמר בוצע אלא כנגד יהודה,

שנאמר “ויאמר יהודה אל אחיו מה בצע כי נהרג את אחינו”;

וכל המברך את יהודה הרי זה מנאץ,

ועל זה נאמר “ובצע ברך נאץ ה”

“A botzeia who blesses has disgraced Hashem” (Tehillim 10:3) –
Rabbi Meir says:
The term “
botzeia” refers to Yehudah,
as Scripture says, “Yehudah said to his brothers: What
betza (=gain) is there if we kill our brother”
And anyone who blesses Yehudah is a disgracer,
and about this Scripture says “one who blesses a
botzeia has disgraces Hashem.”

In case anyone missed the point, Rashi to Sanhedrin comments:

“כנגד יהודה” – 

שהיה לו לומר: “נחזירנו לאבינו,” אחרי שהיו דבריו נשמעין לאחיו

“Referring to Yehudah” –
because he should have said ‘Let us return him to our father’, as his brothers were heeding him.

Rashi on Chumash is therefore explicitly rejecting Rabbi Meir, as he has Yaakov blessing Yehudah for saying “mah Betza!”

Rabbi Chaim Paltiel cites R. Yehudah son of R. Natan as seeking to split the difference – Yehudah should be praised for saving Yosef from death, but nonetheless criticized for doing so only because there was no gain in killing him. This answer seems true neither to Rashi on Chumash nor to the Talmud.

Perhaps Rashi thought that according to Rabbi Meir, our verse refers only to the episode with Tamar and not at all to the sale. Perhaps Rashi, in direct contrast to Rashbam, thought that any reading of the verse that misses the allusion to the sale demonstrated ignorance of Biblical style. But I suggest instead that Rabbi Meir consciously opposed the standard Rabbinic interpretation of Yaakov’s blessing, and Rashi consciously set out to restore it.  Both Rabbi Meir and Rashi were motivated by ideological convictions.

What is really at stake here?

Rabbi Meir’s statement is cited on Sanhedrin 6b in the context of its discussion of pesharah=betziah=splitting=compromise as a mode of judicial practice.  Perhaps Rabbi Meir saw Yehudah as a Biblical model of compromise: “You want to kill Yosef, but maybe that would be wrong – so let’s sell him instead.”  Rabbi Meir condemns Yehudah forcefully – there should be no compromise with evil.  By implication, strict justice should rule in every court case.

Rashi doesn’t think that Yehudah did “the right thing” by saying “Mah betza,” rather than standing against his brothers’ evil plan.  But he may think – and I find this compelling – that suggesting the compromise was Yehudah’s first step toward repentance and redemption.  Rashi then goes one step farther. He argues that Yaakov could bless Yehudah for suggesting the compromise even though it was wrong.

This last step is worthy of a major ideological battle – can/should we bless people for choosing the lesser evil when the good is available?   In practice, the question is usually slightly different – is it worth engaging with morally deficient people, communities, or countries in the hope of getting them to choose the lesser evil, of achieving a “mah betza” moment, and in the further hope that such moments will eventually lead to complete transformation? Or is it better to simply identify evil and stand against it?

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Any Dream Will Do

This week’s alumni Dvar Torah is by Pnina Grossman

In the story of Yosef and his brothers, dreams cast a long shadow. These dreams are also a completely new type of dream from what we have previously seen in Sefer Breishit. Up to this point, the Torah has only mentioned dreams as a form of communication. If a dream came up, it was because G-d was talking to someone inside the dream (see for example בראשית כ:ג, לא:כד). Suddenly, we hear about the nonsensical visions that all types of people are having on various nights – stars and sheaves, vines and birds, cows and wheat doing unnatural things with no omniscient presence explaining why.

Divine communication itself also seems to be in short stock – from the time Yaakov settles in Canaan, we do not see G-d communicating directly with him (or anyone) until Yaakov is on his way down to Egypt to reunite with Yosef. G-d is present – He helps Yosef succeed in Egypt and punishes Yehuda’s two wicked sons. However, we do not see Him tell Yosef the explanation of Pharoh’s dreams. Nor does He tell Yehuda that his sons died for their own sins, not the bad luck of his daughter-in-law. In contrast with Yaakov’s exit from Lavan’s house, it seems that Yaakov must make his own decision about when to send his sons to get food in Egypt during the famine.

Instead of people in this story being told what to do or what any end goals are, they seem to be subtly led in a certain direction, oftentimes by these outrageous dreams. The dream of the Sar HaMashkim leads to Yosef standing before Pharoh, interpreting his dream, which, in turn, leads to the absurd situation of a foreign prisoner and ex-slave becoming the second-in-command of a powerful nation. Arguably, Yosef’s own dreams at the beginning of the story exacerbate his own brothers’ jealousy and resentment of him, leading him to end up in Egypt. Note that while plotting to kill him, Yosef’s brothers disdainfully call him “בעל החלומות,” “the master of dreams.”

This end goal is one that would be surprising to anyone not familiar with the previous stories, or those coming after. Yaakov and his sons must end up in Egypt. This is clear from the upcoming Exodus story, but also from the still looming promise that G-d gave to Avraham:

וַיֹּ֣אמֶר לְאַבְרָ֗ם יָדֹ֨עַ תֵּדַ֜ע כִּי־גֵ֣ר ׀ יִהְיֶ֣ה זַרְעֲךָ֗ בְּאֶ֙רֶץ֙ לֹ֣א לָהֶ֔ם וַעֲבָד֖וּם וְעִנּ֣וּ אֹתָ֑ם אַרְבַּ֥ע מֵא֖וֹת שָׁנָֽה׃ וְגַ֧ם אֶת־הַגּ֛וֹי אֲשֶׁ֥ר יַעֲבֹ֖דוּ דָּ֣ן אָנֹ֑כִי וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵ֥ן יֵצְא֖וּ בִּרְכֻ֥שׁ גָּדֽוֹל׃ וְאַתָּ֛ה תָּב֥וֹא אֶל־אֲבֹתֶ֖יךָ בְּשָׁל֑וֹם תִּקָּבֵ֖ר בְּשֵׂיבָ֥ה טוֹבָֽה׃ וְד֥וֹר רְבִיעִ֖י יָשׁ֣וּבוּ הֵ֑נָּה כִּ֧י לֹא־שָׁלֵ֛ם עֲוֺ֥ן הָאֱמֹרִ֖י עַד־הֵֽנָּה׃ (בראשית טו:יג-טז)

And He said to Abram, “Know well that your offspring shall be strangers in a land not theirs, and they shall be enslaved and oppressed four hundred years; but I will execute judgment on the nation they shall serve, and in the end they shall go free with great wealth. As for you, You shall go to your fathers in peace; You shall be buried at a ripe old age. And they shall return here in the fourth generation, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet complete.” (Translation from Sefaria)

The first time we do see G-d communicate directly with Yaakov again, it is to tell him “אַל־תִּירָא֙ מֵרְדָ֣ה מִצְרַ֔יְמָה כִּֽי־לְג֥וֹי גָּד֖וֹל אֲשִֽׂימְךָ֥ שָֽׁם׃” “Fear not to go down to Egypt, for I will make you there into a great nation” (בראשית מו:ג). Chizkuni points out, “אין אומרים אל תירא אלא למי שהוא מתיירא” “you only say ‘fear not’ to someone who is afraid.” Yaakov’s fear, according to the Chizkuni, was that his going to Egypt would precipitate the coming enslavement of his children there. In other words, a justified fear, but G-d still reassures Yaakov

באתי לך להבטיחך אם קרבו ימי שעבוד ועינוי גם קרבה הברכה שברכתי את זקנך ואעשך לגוי גדול. היינו כי לגוי גדול אשימך שם. (חזקוני על בראשית מו:ג)

I have come to you to promise you, if the days of enslavement and suffering are drawing close, the days of the blessing that I blessed your ancestors with ‘and I will make you a great nation’ are also drawing close. This is ‘for I will make you there into a great nation’

R Elhanan Samet points out that there is a certain irony to G-d reassurance as interpreted by the Chizkuni. By promising that Yaakov will become a great nation in Egypt, He is also confirming Yaakov’s worst fears, that, indeed, Yaakov’s children will now be going down to Egypt for an amount of time where they could become a great nation. This is all but assuring that prophecy G-d gave to Avraham about his children being enslaved will be precipitated by the coming journey. G-d softens the blow by telling Yaakov that his descendants will make it through Egypt and talking about Yaakov’s personal reunification with his beloved son, but the dreaded fate of Yaakov’s children remains unchanged.

The promise that G-d made to Avraham itself came in the form of a dream of sorts, although the word חלום is not used, instead it is described as “וַיְהִ֤י הַשֶּׁ֙מֶשׁ֙ לָב֔וֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָ֖ה נָפְלָ֣ה עַל־אַבְרָ֑ם” “As the sun was about to set, a deep sleep fell upon Abram” (בראשית טו:יב; While highly anachronistic, it is worth noting that the same term is used when G-d puts Adam to sleep to effectively perform surgery on him in בראשית ב:כא). This could maybe also be seen as a softening, G-d placing Avraham in an almost anesthetized state to deliver the hard news about what his descendants will have to go through before they can be a nation. Once delivered, this prophecy was not repeated within the text to Yitzchak or to Yaakov. Perhaps the silence surrounding this decree also becomes the silence surrounding the events that lead up to its ultimate fulfillment. Right before G-d appears to Moshe, the Torah tells us ” וַיַּ֥רְא אֱלֹהִ֖ים אֶת־בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֵּ֖דַע אֱלֹהִֽים” “G-d looked upon the Israelites, and G-d took notice of them” (שמות ב:כה). Rashi comments on this that “נָתַן עֲלֵיהֶם לֵב וְלֹא הֶעֱלִים עֵינָיו” “He directed His heart to them and did not hide His eyes from them.” Until this point, throughout all of the slavery in Egypt, G-d had to hide His eyes from what was happening to His people. Maybe, He had to hide some of Himself from what led them there as well.

Pnina Grossman is a former Sharon native and a 2012 SBM almuna. She now lives in Israel.

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Yosef Was Not Modern Orthodox, or: The Art of Moral Politics

by Rabbi Aryeh Klapper

Yosef was not a Modern Orthodox Jew, or at least not the kind of Modern Orthodox Jew I aspire to be. He lived a bifurcated rather than an integrated life, with different names for different environments, and constantly (at best) balancing his own values against the interests of his masters.

Those were the good times. When the brothers show up in Egypt, Yosef faces the harder challenge of dual loyalties. Now he has to balance not only values against interests, but interests against interests. His testing of his brothers may be an understandable expression of his hope that they are not worthy of deep loyalty, and therefore unlikely to force him into hard and deeply uncomfortable positions. A similar dynamic may explain some aspects of American Jews’ relationship with the State of Israel.

Yehudah’s task in the monologue that opens Parashat VaYigash is to bring Yosef to the point where he is willing to confront that challenge. Bereishis Rabbah 93:4 offers two powerful, beautiful, and complementary metaphors to explain how Yehudah accomplishes this.

A. Scripture writes (Proverbs 20): “Deep waters are the eitzah in the heart of man, but a man of tevunah can draw it up” –
This can be compared to a deep well of cool water, with its waters cool and clear, from which no one could drink. A man came and tied rope to rope and string to string and thread to thread, drew water up from it, and drank.
Then everyone began to draw and drink.
So too – Yehudah did not leave off responding to Yosef, matter after matter, until he was “omeid al libo.”

B. Scripture writes (Proverbs 25) “Golden apples in silver filigree – a word spoken al ofanav” –
Just as a wheel (ofan) shows a face in all directions, so too the words of Yehudah were nir’im lekhol tzad when he spoke with Yosef.

The first metaphor – which the rabbis elsewhere use reflexively, to describe the role of metaphors in teaching philosophy – teaches that Yehudah’s words must be read as psychologically sequential, as leading Yosef step-by-step through the emotional stages that will enable him to acknowledge his family.

The second metaphor – here I will be reflexive – can itself be understood in multiple ways.

One meaning, offered by R. Chiyya bar Abba (B.R. 93:6), is that Yehudah conveyed different emotional content to different audiences simultaneously.

א”ר חייא בר אבא:
כל הדברים שאת קורא שדיבר יהודה ליוסף בפני אחיו עד שאת מגיע “ולא יכול יוסף להתאפק”, היה בהם פיוס ליוסף, ופיוס לאחיו, ופיוס לבנימין:

Said R. Chiyya bar Abba:
All the words you read that Yehudah spoke to Yosef before his brothers up until “Yosef could not etc.”included appeasement toward Yosef, toward his brothers, and toward Binyamin:

פיוס ליוסף,
לומר ראו היך הוא נותן נפשו על בניה של רחל, פיוס לאחיו,
לומר ראו היאך הוא נותן נפשו על אחיו,
פיוס לבנימין,
אמר לו כשם שנתתי נפשי עליך, כך אני נותן נפשי על אחיך,

toward Yosef:
See how I offer my life for a son of Rachel;
toward his brothers:
see how he offers his life for his brothers;
toward Binyamin:
just as I offer my life for you, so too I (?would?) offer my life for your brother(s?)

A second meaning, offered by Rashi, is that Yehudah conveyed a range of possible meanings to Yosef simultaneously.

דבר באזני אדני- יכנסו דברי באזניך:
ואל יחר אפך- מכאן אתה למד שדבר אליו קשות:
כי כמוך כפרעה–
א.חשוב אתה בעיני כמלך.
זה פשוטו.
ב.ומדרשו:
סופך ללקות עליו בצרעת,
כמו שלקה פרעה על ידי זקנתי שרה על לילה אחת שעכבה.
ג.דבר אחר:
מה פרעה גוזר ואינו מקיים, מבטיח ואינו עושה, אף אתה כן –
וכי זו היא שימת עין שאמרת לשום עינך עליו?!
ד.דבר אחר:
“כי כמוך כפרעה” –
אם תקניטני, אהרוג אותך ואת אדוניך:

“A word in my master’s ears” – may my words enter your ears
“and let your wrath not flare”- from here you learn that he spoke harsh things to him
“for you and Pharaoh are alike” –
a. I regard you as equal to a king.
This is its pshat.
b. But its midrash is:
You will eventually be plagued with tzora’at over him,
just as Pharaoh was plagued with tzora’at regarding his foremother Sarah for the one night he detained her
c. Another interpretation:
Just as Pharaoh decrees but does not fulfill, promised but does not act, so too you –
is this the ‘placing of eyes on’ that you intended when saying ‘I will place my eyes on him’?
d. Another interpretation:
“For you and Pharaoh are alike” –
if you antagonize me, I will kill you and your master

Each of these are necessary tactics. Yehudah cannot himself expose Yosef, lest Yosef respond defensively and seek to demonstrate his Egyptian loyalty by rejecting his brothers. Nor can he risk having the rest of the brothers abandon Binyamin – and thereby let Yosef justify abandoning all of them– or even worse, having Binyamin turn on the brothers.

At the same time, Yehudah has to give Yosef a motive for changing. Yosef has known all along who the brothers are, and not dropped the charade that they are strangers, so Yehudah has to find the right combination of carrots and sticks to enable Yosef to find the courage to expose himself.

What encourages Yehudah, I suggest, is that Yosef has already exposed himself to at least one Egyptian. Somebody had to plant the cup in Binyamin’s bag (as Bekhor Shor notes, with Ramban following in his wake), and that someone both makes Yosef vulnerable and demonstrates that at least in part he wants that vulnerability.

The art of moral politics, and the aim of moral political rhetoric, is often to get people to act in accordance with what they already believe but cannot find the courage to act on. Sometimes that requires jettisoning an alluring but deceptive complexity for the sake of moral clarity – this was the teshuvah-process of Yehudah, and his hardwon clarity enables him to bring all his powers to bear on the task of winning over Yosef. Sometimes, as for Yosef here, it requires facing complexity at the expense of an alluring but disingenuous clarity.

Modern Orthodoxy in America faces both these challenges; may we, as we read Yehudah’s words and Yosef’s reaction, be inspired to meet both with courage and integrity.

This Dvar Torah was originally published in 2013.

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Chanukkah, Miracles, and Zionism

by Rabbi Aryeh Klapper

Chanukkah commemorates events that took place during the period of the Second Temple.  But which events?  There are at least four possibilities.  One, supported by the letter of some versions of the Al Hanisim prayer for Chanukkah, focuses on the military victory of the Hasmoneans.  A second focuses on the restoration of Jewish sovereignty that resulted from that victory.  A third, supported by the structure of that prayer and by the name of the holiday, focuses on the renewal of the Temple.  A fourth focuses on the miracle of the long-lasting oil mentioned in the Talmud.

Each of these possibilities seems hopelessly outdated as the basis for a contemporary celebration.  The Hasmonean victory has no ongoing political consequences; a century later, Judea became a Roman province, and eventually we were exiled from Judea.  The Temple was destroyed and remains a ruin.  The oil-miracle had no clear significance other than indicating that G-d was responsible for the victory and/or rededication.  So why do we still celebrate Chanukkah?

This is not a new question.  The irrelevance and historical insignificance of Chanukkah was discussed more than a thousand years ago in the Talmud (Rosh Hashannah 18a-b).

Sometime during the Second Temple period, a work ironically called Megillat Taanit (=The Scroll of Fasting) began serving as a record of all days on which Jews were forbidden to fast. The Talmud records a dispute among the first generations of Amoraim as to whether this prohibition remained in force: Rav and Rabbi Chanina said no, but Rabbi Yochanan and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said yes. Rav Kehana then challenges the position that it is no longer binding:

מעשה

וגזרו תענית בחנוכה בלוד,

וירד רבי אליעזר ורחץ, ורבי יהושע וסיפר,

ואמרו להם: צאו והתענו על מה שהתעניתם.

A factual narrative:
They once decreed a fast on Chanukkah in Lod.
Rabbi Eliezer went down to bathe, and Rabbi Yehoshua had his hair cut
and (Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua said to them:
Go out and fast (to atone) for having fasted.

The Talmud at this point sees Chanukkah as a perfectly ordinary Second Temple nonfast day, and takes the position of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua as dispositive (the end of the sugya acknowledges that both sides of the controversy had standing).  So how could Rav and Rabbi Chanina deny that all the other nonfast days remained in force?

אמר רב יוסף:

שאני חנוכה, דאיכא מצוה.

אמר ליה אביי:

ותיבטיל איהי ותיבטל מצותה!?

Said Rav Yosef:
Chanukkah is different, because it has an (associated) mitzvah.
Abayay said to him:
So let it and its mitzvah be nullified!?

Rav Yosef initially distinguishes Chanukkah on the grounds that it had a ritual, presumably candle-lighting. Abbaya understands him to be arguing that rituals have greater legal inertia than a proscription against fasting. He finds the claim absurd; why should rituals survive their rationale?!

אלא אמר רב יוסף:

שאני חנוכה, דמיפרסם ניסא

Rather, Rav Yosef said:

Chanukkah is different, because mfrsm miracle.

So the Talmud reinterprets Rav Yosef, or else Rav Yosef changes his mind.  It matters which.  If Rav Yosef changed his mind, it turns out that ritual per se is not relevant; Chanukkah survives because of something intrinsic about the day.  But if the Talmud is reinterpreting his earlier statement, then it is the combination of ritual and meaning that endures.

The grammar of mfrsm is also ambiguous.  Does it mean that the miracle was already widely known, and therefore the day did not lapse, or that the day should not be allowed to lapse, because it serves the purpose of publicizing the miracle?

Rashi takes a radical third approach:

 כבר הוא גלוי לכל ישראל

על ידי שנהגו בו המצות,

והחזיקו בו כשל תורה,

ולא נכון לבטלו.

Since the miracle is already “in the open” to all Israel
via their performance of the mitzvot (plural!)
and they grasped it as if it were Biblical,
so it is not proper to nullify it.

According to Rashi, the Rabbis did not find Chanukkah’s message more enduring than those of other Second Temple celebrations, nor did they grant rituals intrinsic halakhic inertia. Rather, the ritual served to spread the message, and the combination of medium and message embedded itself so deeply in popular culture that it would be improper – perhaps deeply unwise – to seek to nullify it.

Chanukkah thus becomes a parade example of bottom-up halakhic influence. The remaining question is whether the Rabbis were simply indifferent to the day, or whether Chanukkah’s popularity bothered them, because they were actively opposed to the continuation of its message in Exile.  If the latter is the case, might they have sought to affect its meaning if they could not prevent its practice?

Rashi does not identify the miracle he is referring to, but he makes clear that for the Rabbis, Chanukkah survives not in order to publicize the miracle, but rather because it has already been publicized.

A different impression emerges from our edition of Rambam Laws of Chanukkah Chapter 3:

During the Second Temple, when Greece had dominion,
they imposed decrees on Israel, and nullified their religion, and did not permit them to engage in Torah and mitzvot,
they laid hands on their money and their daughters
they entered the Heikhal and breached it and defiled the things that must be tahor
Israel suffered much from them, and they tormented them greatly
Until Hashem the G-d of our ancestors had mercy on them and saved us from them and rescued them
so that the Hasmonean High Priests were victorious and killed them and saved Israel from them
They appointed kings from among the priests
and Jewish monarchy/sovereignty returned for more than 200 years until the Second Destruction
When Israel triumphed over their enemies and destroyed them – it was the 25th of Kislev
They entered the Heikhal but found only once cruse of tahor oil,
which only contained enough to light for one day
but they lit the lights of the array from it for eight days, until they pressed olives and produced tahor oil.
Because of this
the Sages of that generation established that these eight days, beginning on Kislev 25,
would be days of joy and praise
and we light the nerot on each of those eight nights at the entrances of the houses

להראות ולגלות הנס . . .

in order to demonstrate and put “in the open” the miracle.

Rambam does not use the word miracle anywhere in his retelling of the Chanukkah story, so we cannot tell for certain which miracle he thinks our lighting commemorates. However, his narrative clearly focuses on the return of sovereignty as the core of Chanukkah. Moreover, his concluding phrase seems clearly drawn from Rav Yosef, which indicates strongly that he sees Chanukkah as surviving in order to publicize the miracle.

However, Raphi Ozarowski pointed out to me that the phrase “In order to demonstrate and put in the open the miracle” is absent in the first edition of the Rambam and a key manuscript.  That suggests that Rambam saw Chanukkah as surviving purely because of its underlying message, and perhaps tried to diminish the importance of the miraculous to that message – so much so that a later copyist felt impelled to insert a sentence reintroducing the miraculous.

Unlike Rashi, Rambam does not attribute Chanukkah’s survival to populist resistance.  Rather, he presents it as a Rabbinic decree whose rationale never lost relevance.  It is tempting to suggest that the hypothetical later copyist represents a different kind of successful resistance.

But the resistances to Rashi and Rambam might cut in opposite ways.  For Rashi, it might be that the people refused to accommodate themselves to the condition of Exile, and kept the Chanukkah lights burning in order to keep their non-explicitly-miraculous (=non-Messianic?) Zionist dreams alive – whereas the resistance to Rambam rejected the possibility of non-explicitly-miraculous Zionism.

The Rabbis discuss whether in Messianic times there will still be a purpose in remembering the Exodus.  By the same token, we could ask whether Chanukkah still has a purpose when a more recent victory is the cause of our having a State, even if we firmly hold that the State is at best potentially Messianic, and not inevitably so.  Or perhaps Chanukkah has renewed meaning in our day precisely because it foreshadowed non-Messianic Zionism so powerfully for so long.

While the Hasmonean victory was not Messianic, it was certainly accompanied by the miracle of the oil.  The oil in the Temple lasted just long enough for the Jews to prepare new tahor oil; it would have run out had the Jews delayed at all, and not been ready with new oil on the 8th day. One eternal message of Chanukkah is that miracles do not endure forever, and even those blessed by miracles must make every effort – spiritually and practically – to be ready for the transition back to normal life.

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